• About Life Cycle
    Life Cycle is an international, peer-reviewed, open access general medical journal and invites submissions of any original contribution that broadens, advances, or brightens medical science or practice, or that educates or delights the Journal’s readers. Building on the foundation of Life Cycle as the best science for medical health research, the Journal is committed to publishing high-quality and cutting-edge Original Research Articles, State-of-the-Art Reviews, and Letters that contribute to the advancement of healthy life from birth to senescence.

    CURRENT ISSUE: Oct 2023, Vol. 3

    SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia: A comprehensive review, release 1 (epidemiologic perspective)
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e16
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e16
    ABSTRACT
    More than eight billion vaccine doses have been delivered to battle the COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been carefully developed and proven efficacious as evidenced by clinical assays and studies in real-world settings. However, rare but severe side effects raise important safety concerns. Particularly, severe complication after vaccina...
    SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia: A comprehensive review, release 2 (immunologic perspective)
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e17
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e17
    ABSTRACT
    Thromboembolism remains an extremely rare side effect of COVID-19 vaccination, and the benefits of vaccination against COVID-19 continue to outweigh the risks of side effects. The scientific community should have confidence in the safety of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines when considering solutions to unwanted side effects. This study explores the intricat...
    Obesity and COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea: rapid review and a post-hoc analysis
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e15
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e15
    ABSTRACT
    COVID-19’s disproportionate effects on socioeconomic and behavioral factors may have affected the prevalence of obesity. To better understand the trends in body mass index (BMI) among Koreans before and during the pandemic, we examined several biosocial risk factors. During the pandemic, BMI increased less rapidly than anticipated. The multifacet...
    Trends in prevalence of smoking in South Korea, 2014-2021: A post-hoc secondary analysis
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e14
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e14
    ABSTRACT
    Little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic will comprehensively affect prevalence of cigarette and e-cigarette smoking. Through a post-hoc secondary analysis from a nationwide, long-term serial, and representative study of 1.2 million individuals, the prevalence of traditional smoking decreased less than expected during the pandemic; however, ...
    Transarterial chemoembolization versus radioembolization as a treatment option for single large (>5 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective study in South Korea
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e13
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e13
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: To date, there has been no study comparing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with transarterial radioembolization (TARE) in these patients, so this study was designed to determine which treatment is more effective and safer between TACE and TARE. Methods: From January 2011 to May 2017, patients who received TACE or TARE as a first-l...
    Allergic diseases, COVID-19 pandemic, and underlying mechanisms
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e12
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e12
    ABSTRACT
    The impact of COVID-19 on allergic diseases in adolescents is not well described. Although there has been a previous study that examined changes in prevalence one year into the pandemic, there is a need for follow-up due to the nature of the infectious disease. Therefore, this article explored the extent to which the pandemic had a potential mediat...
    Gemigliptin attenuates reducing sugar-induced oxidative damage in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and improves osteoblastic differentiation
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e11
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e11
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been shown to reduce the rate of bone fractures. A newly developed antidiabetic drug, gemigliptin, may improve bone quality. We investigated the effects of gemigliptin on 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dRib)-induced oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction in the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line. Methods...
    Exploring factors related to alcohol and substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic: a post-hoc analysis from the Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e10
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e10
    ABSTRACT
    Despite the significance of the COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on life, only a few previous studies have been conducted on youth substance use during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, we aimed to determine the change in alcohol and substance use by the familial-, social-, and individual-associated risk factors among Korean adolescents, comparin...
    National trends in influenza vaccination coverage rates in South Korea between 2007-2020, including the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal nationwide serial study
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e9
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e9
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: The beneficial relationship of influenza vaccination rate on the COVID-19 pandemic is inconclusive and inconsistent. Thus, we aimed to investigate long-term trend changes in influenza vaccination rate among general population of South Korea before COVID-19 pandemic and during early/mid-pandemic period. Methods: We analyzed nationwide rep...
    Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression in survival analysis: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e8
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e8
    ABSTRACT
    In medical research, analyzing the time it takes for a phenomenon to occur is sometimes crucial. However, various factors can contribute to the length of survival or observation periods, and removing specific data can lead to bias results. In this paper, we discuss the Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model, which are t...
    Shifts in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates among African countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e7
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e7
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: The few existing country-specific studies on vaccine hesitancy in Africa are limited by their focus on specific population groups such as health care workers or medical students. Thus, we aimed to provide a comparative systematic review and meta-analysis of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates in African countries and their predictors. Meth...
    Obesity: lessons learned and the way forward
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e6
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e6
    Allergic diseases and COVID-19 pandemic: facing unprecedented challenges
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e5
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e5
    ABSTRACT
    The impact of COVID-19 on allergic diseases in adolescents is not well described. Although there has been a previous study that examined changes in prevalence one year into the pandemic, there is a need for follow-up due to the nature of the infectious disease. Therefore, this review article explored the extent to which the pandemic had a potential...
    Age, ethnic, and sex disparity in body mass index and waist circumference: a bi-national large-scale study in South Korea and the United States
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e4
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e4
    ABSTRACT
    The study investigated age, ethnic, and sex disparities in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in South Korea and the United States. We conducted a bi-national large-scale study and analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the U...
    The emerging epidemics in recent: mpox
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e3
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e3
    ABSTRACT
    In 2022, while the world has yet to be free from the aftermath of the long-term pandemic caused by COVID-19, the unusual epidemic of endemic diseases in Africa called mpox (monkeypox) was designated as the Public Health Emergency of International Concert by the World Health Organization, drawing world’s attention to whether new pandemic will occu...
    The emerging pandemic recent: SARS-CoV-2
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e2
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e2
    ABSTRACT
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), induces coughing, vomiting, or fever. The occurrence, duration, and severity of these symptoms vary from person to person, which makes symptoms of the COVID-19 infection ranging from those of a mild cold to death in severe cases. The cau...
    Effect of COVID-19 pandemic on vaccination and treatment pattern of prostate cancer: a comprehensive literature review, phase 2
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e1
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e1
    ABSTRACT
    During the COVID-19 pandemic, overall screening, diagnostics, and treatment have faced a downtrend, especially during the first wave and lockdown. Statistics showed improvements starting from the late era of the pandemic and the end of 2020. To improvise, the risk of delayed curative treatment was measured and treatment plans were amended according...

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    MOST READ ARTICLES

    Methods for testing statistical differences between groups in medical research: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e1
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e1
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    Last 3 months views: 1444

    Regression analysis for continuous independent variables in medical research: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e3
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e3
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    Last 3 months views: 1208

    PRISMA 2020 statement and guidelines for systematic review and meta-analysis articles, and their underlying mathematics: Life Cycle Committee Recommendations
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e9
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e9
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    Last 3 months views: 733

    Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in 237 countries and territories, January 2022: a systematic analysis for World Health Organization COVID-19 Dashboard
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e10
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e10
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    Last 3 months views: 575

    Propensity score matching for causal inference and reducing the confounding effects: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e18
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e18
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    Last 3 months views: 521

    Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression in survival analysis: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e8
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e8
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    Last 3 months views: 492

    COVID-19 vaccines and coronavirus 19 variants including alpha, delta, and omicron: present status and future directions
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e4
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e4
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    Last 3 months views: 479

    Global Burden of Disease study at the World Health Organization: research methods for the most comprehensive global study of disease and underlying health policies
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e8
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e8
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    Last 3 months views: 473

    The emerging pandemic recent: SARS-CoV-2
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e2
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e2
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    Last 3 months views: 424

    SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia: A comprehensive review, release 1 (epidemiologic perspective)
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e16
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e16
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    Last 3 months views: 411

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    MOST CITED ARTICLES

    Methods for testing statistical differences between groups in medical research: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e1
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e1
    ABSTRACT
    In medical research, when independent variables are categorical (i.e., dividing groups), statistical analysis is often required. This situation mostly occurs on randomized controlled trials and observational studies that have multiple patient groups. Also, when analyzing continuous independent variables in a single patient group, breakpoints can be...
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    Cited by 124

    Regression analysis for continuous independent variables in medical research: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e3
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e3
    ABSTRACT
    Variables measured in medicine are usually continuous, such as blood pressure, serum glucose, and drug dosage. There are statistical methods to confirm whether these variables act as independent variables that cause an outcome. Most of these methods are types of regression analysis. In this article, starting with a simple correlation coefficient, l...
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    Cited by 68

    PRISMA 2020 statement and guidelines for systematic review and meta-analysis articles, and their underlying mathematics: Life Cycle Committee Recommendations
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e9
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e9
    ABSTRACT
    The paper discussed the overall aspects of systematic review and meta-analysis and explored the main mathematical context of meta-analysis. This included various methods of analyzing the effect size and obtaining the average effect size depending on the variable type. In doing so, methods of obtaining effect sizes in continuous outcome variables, c...
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    Cited by 37

    Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in 237 countries and territories, January 2022: a systematic analysis for World Health Organization COVID-19 Dashboard
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e10
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e10
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: To estimate global, regional, and national incidences and mortality of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 237 countries and territories since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic to 31 January, 2022. Methods: Comprehensive estimates were produced through global, regional, and national studies of cumulative severe acute respirato...
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    Cited by 26

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine-contaminated ranitidine and risk of cancer in South Korea: a nationwide cohort study
    Life Cycle 2021;1:e1
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2021.e1
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: On September 2019, the United States Food and Drug Administration announced that some ranitidine products were contaminated with unacceptable levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). We aimed to determine whether the use of ranitidine that was potentially contaminated with NDMA, rather than another histamine H2-receptor antagonist (H2 bl...
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    Cited by 16

    Vaccine strategy against COVID-19 with a focus on the Omicron and stealth Omicron variants: Life Cycle Committee Recommendations
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e5
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e5
    ABSTRACT
    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and was consequently transmitted across the world. Further, within a year of its initial discovery, vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were developed using diverse t...
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    Cited by 11

    Nationwide COVID-19 vaccination coverage and COVID-19 incidence in South Korea, January 2022: a national official report
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e2
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e2
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: To reduce the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness, and COVID-19 related death, all persons in South Korea should stay up to data with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations. This study investigated the rates and effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccina...
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    Cited by 10

    The emerging pandemic recent: SARS-CoV-2
    Life Cycle 2023;3:e2
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2023.e2
    ABSTRACT
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), induces coughing, vomiting, or fever. The occurrence, duration, and severity of these symptoms vary from person to person, which makes symptoms of the COVID-19 infection ranging from those of a mild cold to death in severe cases. The cau...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 10

    Propensity score matching for causal inference and reducing the confounding effects: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e18
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e18
    ABSTRACT
    Since the development of research methodology, there has always been keen interest in developing the accuracy of the research by comparing covariates. Propensity score is useful when the research covers many variables which are not intended to be included as independent variables, thus allowing the removal of certain covariates from the model. This...
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    Cited by 9

    Global Burden of Disease study at the World Health Organization: research methods for the most comprehensive global study of disease and underlying health policies
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e8
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e8
    ABSTRACT
    The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) is a compass that navigates researchers and clinicians in discovering the latest knowledge and the current status of health for populations and countries worldwide. The GBD helps to present various methods in evaluating health-related quality of life and assess the health burden, economic burden, years of life los...
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    Cited by 8

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