• About Life Cycle
    Life Cycle is an international, peer-reviewed, open access general medical journal and invites submissions of any original contribution that broadens, advances, or brightens medical science or practice, or that educates or delights the Journal’s readers. Building on the foundation of Life Cycle as the best science for medical health research, the Journal is committed to publishing high-quality and cutting-edge Original Research Articles, State-of-the-Art Reviews, and Letters that contribute to the advancement of healthy life from birth to senescence.

    CURRENT ISSUE: Nov 2022, Vol. 2

    Propensity score matching for causal inference and reducing the confounding effects: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e18
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e18
    ABSTRACT
    Since the development of research methodology, there has always been keen interest in developing the accuracy of the research by comparing covariates. Propensity score is useful when the research covers many variables which are not intended to be included as independent variables, thus allowing the removal of certain covariates from the model. This...
    Demographic, transmission, and clinical characteristics associated with human monkeypox infection, October 2022: a systematic analysis for World Health Organization database and brief review
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e17
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e17
    ABSTRACT
    The monkeypox (MPX) is an unusual viral disease which, until recently, has rarely been detected outside of Africa. A total of 71,237 confirmed cases of MPX, as of October 6th, 2022, had been discovered in 109 countries in the matter of months. The risk factors of MPX are men who have sex with the same gender (prevalence 90.0%, 95% CI, 89.5 to 90.4)...
    Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality of human monkeypox infection in 107 countries and territories, October 2022: a systematic analysis for World Health Organization database and rapid review
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e16
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e16
    ABSTRACT
    The monkeypox is an unusual viral disease which, until recently, has rarely been detected outside of Africa. Approximately over 70,000 laboratory-verified or suspected cases of human monkeypox have been discovered in at least 107 countries in a matter of months. A total of 71,237 laboratory confirmed cases, 1,097 probable cases, and 26 related deat...
    Global, regional, and national COVID-19 vaccination rate in 237 countries and territories, March 2022: a systematic analysis for World Health Organization COVID-19 Dashboard, Release 2
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e15
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e15
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: We aimed to better understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic through analysis of disruptions in a global, regional, and national status of COVID-19 vaccination coverage compared by a global scale, World Health Organization regions, World Bank income groups, and each country. Methods: Global datasets of 237 countries and territories ...
    Global, regional, and national disruptions to COVID-19 vaccine coverage in 237 countries and territories, March 2022: a systematic analysis for World Health Organization COVID-19 Dashboard, Release 1
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e14
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e14
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: Measuring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is crucial in improving global public health system during the pandemic. However, there is limited supporting data needed in order to identify the global, regional, and national status of the COVID-19 vaccination coverage. Given to such limitations, this study aimed at investigati...
    The importance of a World Health Organization international pharmacovigilance database (VigiBase): novel methods for safety monitoring and surveillance of medical products
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e13
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e13
    ABSTRACT
    Pharmacovigilance and medical product safety issues are important for all global citizens. Previous studies have analyzed the disaster caused by thalidomide in 1961. In 1963, the 16th World Health Assembly was determined to create the World Health Organization (WHO) Pilot Research Project for International Drug Monitoring in order to develop and un...
    The effects of systemic corticosteroid on pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: comprehensive review
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e12
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e12
    ABSTRACT
    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a highly prevalent disorder in children. The treatment options available for children with CAP are inhalation therapy and initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Occasionally, CAP may progress to severe pneumonia despite appropriate therapy. While there are a few studies reporting the beneficial effects o...
    Situation reports and impacts on public health during the war in Ukraine, 24 February to 21 June 2022: World Health Organization Emergency Reports
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e11
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e11
    ABSTRACT
    Due to the Russian illegal invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, evident and dramatic increases were found in the numbers of war-affected populations, the refugees, individuals relocated in Ukraine, and civilian injuries and deaths as the war is escalated. The war has delivered great pressures and demands for the Ukrainian health division. Food...
    Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in 237 countries and territories, January 2022: a systematic analysis for World Health Organization COVID-19 Dashboard
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e10
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e10
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: To estimate global, regional, and national incidences and mortality of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 237 countries and territories since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic to 31 January, 2022. Methods: Comprehensive estimates were produced through global, regional, and national studies of cumulative severe acute respirato...
    PRISMA 2020 statement and guidelines for systematic review and meta-analysis articles, and their underlying mathematics: Life Cycle Committee Recommendations
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e9
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e9
    ABSTRACT
    The paper discussed the overall aspects of systematic review and meta-analysis and explored the main mathematical context of meta-analysis. This included various methods of analyzing the effect size and obtaining the average effect size depending on the variable type. In doing so, methods of obtaining effect sizes in continuous outcome variables, c...
    Global Burden of Disease study at the World Health Organization: research methods for the most comprehensive global study of disease and underlying health policies
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e8
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e8
    ABSTRACT
    The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) is a compass that navigates researchers and clinicians in discovering the latest knowledge and the current status of health for populations and countries worldwide. The GBD helps to present various methods in evaluating health-related quality of life and assess the health burden, economic burden, years of life los...
    How serious is the Omicron variant? transmissibility, genomics, and responses to COVID-19 vaccines, and ‘Stealth’ Omicron variants
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e7
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e7
    ABSTRACT
    Since its emergence on November 9, 2021, the Omicron variant has spread quickly across the globe as a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and became the variant of concern at an astonishingly rapid rate. This new variant was found to be a massively mutated virus from the original virus formation. The World Health Organi...
    Extrapulmonary clinical manifestations of COVID-19: an umbrella review of meta-analysis
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e6
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e6
    ABSTRACT
    Since its emergence, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), compared to other coronavirus diseases throughout history, has generated large waves of infection with symptoms such as fever, chills, cough, fatigue, headache, and sore throat appeared. Despite many efforts and gains through meta-analyses of the symptoms of COVID-19 thus far, there has ...
    Vaccine strategy against COVID-19 with a focus on the Omicron and stealth Omicron variants: Life Cycle Committee Recommendations
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e5
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e5
    ABSTRACT
    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and was consequently transmitted across the world. Further, within a year of its initial discovery, vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were developed using diverse t...
    COVID-19 vaccines and coronavirus 19 variants including alpha, delta, and omicron: present status and future directions
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e4
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e4
    ABSTRACT
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a coronavirus, also called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has caused urgent global health problems worldwide. The rapid spread of this pathogen, the development of its variants, and the escalating number of patients and their deaths prompted scientists to take up the...
    Regression analysis for continuous independent variables in medical research: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e3
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e3
    ABSTRACT
    Variables measured in medicine are usually continuous, such as blood pressure, serum glucose, and drug dosage. There are statistical methods to confirm whether these variables act as independent variables that cause an outcome. Most of these methods are types of regression analysis. In this article, starting with a simple correlation coefficient, l...
    Nationwide COVID-19 vaccination coverage and COVID-19 incidence in South Korea, January 2022: a national official report
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e2
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e2
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: To reduce the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness, and COVID-19 related death, all persons in South Korea should stay up to data with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations. This study investigated the rates and effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccina...
    Methods for testing statistical differences between groups in medical research: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e1
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e1
    ABSTRACT
    In medical research, when independent variables are categorical (i.e., dividing groups), statistical analysis is often required. This situation mostly occurs on randomized controlled trials and observational studies that have multiple patient groups. Also, when analyzing continuous independent variables in a single patient group, breakpoints can be...

    View More

    MOST READ ARTICLES

    Methods for testing statistical differences between groups in medical research: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e1
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e1
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Last 3 months views: 362

    Regression analysis for continuous independent variables in medical research: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e3
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e3
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Last 3 months views: 305

    Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in 237 countries and territories, January 2022: a systematic analysis for World Health Organization COVID-19 Dashboard
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e10
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e10
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Last 3 months views: 242

    Propensity score matching for causal inference and reducing the confounding effects: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e18
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e18
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Last 3 months views: 184

    Global Burden of Disease study at the World Health Organization: research methods for the most comprehensive global study of disease and underlying health policies
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e8
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e8
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Last 3 months views: 173

    PRISMA 2020 statement and guidelines for systematic review and meta-analysis articles, and their underlying mathematics: Life Cycle Committee Recommendations
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e9
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e9
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Last 3 months views: 163

    COVID-19 vaccines and coronavirus 19 variants including alpha, delta, and omicron: present status and future directions
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e4
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e4
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Last 3 months views: 135

    Nationwide COVID-19 vaccination coverage and COVID-19 incidence in South Korea, January 2022: a national official report
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e2
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e2
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Last 3 months views: 132

    Global, regional, and national disruptions to COVID-19 vaccine coverage in 237 countries and territories, March 2022: a systematic analysis for World Health Organization COVID-19 Dashboard, Release 1
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e14
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e14
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Last 3 months views: 108

    The effects of systemic corticosteroid on pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: comprehensive review
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e12
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e12
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Last 3 months views: 105

    View More

    MOST CITED ARTICLES

    Methods for testing statistical differences between groups in medical research: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e1
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e1
    ABSTRACT
    In medical research, when independent variables are categorical (i.e., dividing groups), statistical analysis is often required. This situation mostly occurs on randomized controlled trials and observational studies that have multiple patient groups. Also, when analyzing continuous independent variables in a single patient group, breakpoints can be...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 37

    Regression analysis for continuous independent variables in medical research: statistical standard and guideline of Life Cycle Committee
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e3
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e3
    ABSTRACT
    Variables measured in medicine are usually continuous, such as blood pressure, serum glucose, and drug dosage. There are statistical methods to confirm whether these variables act as independent variables that cause an outcome. Most of these methods are types of regression analysis. In this article, starting with a simple correlation coefficient, l...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 20

    Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in 237 countries and territories, January 2022: a systematic analysis for World Health Organization COVID-19 Dashboard
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e10
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e10
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: To estimate global, regional, and national incidences and mortality of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 237 countries and territories since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic to 31 January, 2022. Methods: Comprehensive estimates were produced through global, regional, and national studies of cumulative severe acute respirato...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 8

    PRISMA 2020 statement and guidelines for systematic review and meta-analysis articles, and their underlying mathematics: Life Cycle Committee Recommendations
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e9
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e9
    ABSTRACT
    The paper discussed the overall aspects of systematic review and meta-analysis and explored the main mathematical context of meta-analysis. This included various methods of analyzing the effect size and obtaining the average effect size depending on the variable type. In doing so, methods of obtaining effect sizes in continuous outcome variables, c...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 6

    Vaccine strategy against COVID-19 with a focus on the Omicron and stealth Omicron variants: Life Cycle Committee Recommendations
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e5
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e5
    ABSTRACT
    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and was consequently transmitted across the world. Further, within a year of its initial discovery, vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were developed using diverse t...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 5

    Nationwide COVID-19 vaccination coverage and COVID-19 incidence in South Korea, January 2022: a national official report
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e2
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e2
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: To reduce the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness, and COVID-19 related death, all persons in South Korea should stay up to data with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations. This study investigated the rates and effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccina...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 4

    COVID-19 vaccines and coronavirus 19 variants including alpha, delta, and omicron: present status and future directions
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e4
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e4
    ABSTRACT
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a coronavirus, also called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has caused urgent global health problems worldwide. The rapid spread of this pathogen, the development of its variants, and the escalating number of patients and their deaths prompted scientists to take up the...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 4

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine-contaminated ranitidine and risk of cancer in South Korea: a nationwide cohort study
    Life Cycle 2021;1:e1
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2021.e1
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: On September 2019, the United States Food and Drug Administration announced that some ranitidine products were contaminated with unacceptable levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). We aimed to determine whether the use of ranitidine that was potentially contaminated with NDMA, rather than another histamine H2-receptor antagonist (H2 bl...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 3

    Extrapulmonary clinical manifestations of COVID-19: an umbrella review of meta-analysis
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e6
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e6
    ABSTRACT
    Since its emergence, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), compared to other coronavirus diseases throughout history, has generated large waves of infection with symptoms such as fever, chills, cough, fatigue, headache, and sore throat appeared. Despite many efforts and gains through meta-analyses of the symptoms of COVID-19 thus far, there has ...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 1

    How serious is the Omicron variant? transmissibility, genomics, and responses to COVID-19 vaccines, and ‘Stealth’ Omicron variants
    Life Cycle 2022;2:e7
    https://doi.org/10.54724/lc.2022.e7
    ABSTRACT
    Since its emergence on November 9, 2021, the Omicron variant has spread quickly across the globe as a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and became the variant of concern at an astonishingly rapid rate. This new variant was found to be a massively mutated virus from the original virus formation. The World Health Organi...
    HTML PDF PubReader

    Cited by 1

    View More